Diabetes Mellitus


​Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Facts and figures about diabetes mellitus
•422 million people have diabetes.
•1 out of every 11 adults living with diabetes.
•By the year 2040 will suffer one out of every 10 adults from diabetes.
•1 out of every 2 people with diabetes does not know about his disease.
•Saudi Arabia kingdom is ranked seventh worldwide (with type1 DM).
•Saudi Arabia kingdom is ranked fifth of new cases discovered of the (DM type I) in the Middle East.
•Number of patients with DM Type II diabetes in the Kingdom (3.5 million)
•The number of patients with diabetes type II whose does not know about his disease (1.24 million).
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin in sufficient amounts or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which is responsible for the control of sugar level in the blood.
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus
•Sudden weight loss
•Frequent urination
•Extreme thirst
•Lack of activity
•Constant hunger
•Delayed wound healing
•Blurred vision
Types of diabetes
•Type 1 diabetes mellitus: occurs when the pancreas produces very little insulin or no insulin at all. People who get Type 1 diabetes are usually use insulin injection daily as treatment.
•Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.
•Gestational diabetes is the third main type of diabetes and occurs during pregnancy without a previous history of diabetes.
Treatment of Diabetes Type I:
The treatment including two sections: drugs section and Awareness section.
Drugs section:
Including insulin injection through deferent methods including:
1. Insulin injections.
2. Insulin Pens
3. Insulin Pump
Awareness Section:
Beside of insulin treatment should be concern to the following factors:
•Health education for patient.
•Healthy diet.
•Weight control.
•Promoting physical activity.
Treatment of Diabetes Type II:
The treatment of diabetes type II diabetes aimed to decrease blood glucose level by using pharmaceutical pills and in some cases the patient treated with insulin and pills together.
Beside of drug therapy should be concern to the following factors:
•Healthy Diet.
•Weight control.
•Promoting physical activity.
•Follow up with your physician appointment.
Treatment of gestational diabetes:
•Health education and healthy diet.
•Control of blood sugar level during pregnancy.
•Physical activity (walking).
•Take prescribed medicines as needed.
•The women after delivery need to continue doing laboratory tests on a regular basis because they are high risk to Type II diabetes.
Complications of diabetes:
Eye complications.
Foot complications.
Skin complications.
Heart problems.
Mental health.
Gum disease.
Erectile dysfunction.
Delay Healing of wounds.

The effect of diabetes on the eye:
1. Retinopathy and clogging of blood vessels.
2. Cataract (opacity of the eye lens).
3. Glaucoma (high eye pressure).
4. Optic nerve injury.
5. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among the diabetic patient in the age group between (20-75) years of age. Therefore the early screening, take proper therapy, continues follow up with endocrine and ophthalmologist will decrease risk of blindness to 95%

Acute complications of diabetes:
Ketoacidosis: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones in blood and urine, and blood sugar more than 250mg/dl.
Ketoacidosis result of lost dose of insulin and/or take excessive sweet or result of acute infection. Ketoacidosis treatment need to urgent care in hospital.
Hypoglycemia: also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases below 60 mg/dl. This may result in a variety of symptoms including loss of consciousness.

How to Prevent complications of diabetes:
1.Quite smoking.
2.Control of blood pressure and lipid.
3.Follow up the physician appointment and make sure to do all laboratory Test.
4.Take care of teeth and foot continuously.
5.Avoid stress.
Important investigation for DM patient:
•The HbA1C test (accumulation of glucose in blood serum for three month ago)
•Fasting plasma glucose test.
•Kidney function test.
•Blood pressure measure.
•Foot assessment.
Eye examination.
•Lipid profile test.

How to protect yourself from diabetes?
The factors leading to diabetes which is divided into two groups
1- Modifiable factors

- Body weight (overweight and obesity)
- Unhealthy diet
- Smoking
- Increase of cholesterol and triglyceride in blood
- Sedentary life style

2- non modifiable factors
-Age > 45
-Male more than female
- Family history

How to avoid diabetes or delay the disease:
•Weight loss.
•Follow-up with the doctor (to maintain blood pressure and cholesterol and triglyceride levels within the normal range).
•A healthy diet.
•Exercise regularly.
•Quit smoking.